新疆持续改善塔里木河流域生态环境 续写“胡杨礼赞”

  中新社乌鲁木齐8月25日电 题:新疆持续改善塔里木河流域生态环境 续写“胡杨礼赞”

  作者:苟继鹏 姜微莲

  “4年走路,1年骑毛驴,7年骑自行车,一次巡查走一周,一个月回家一次。”8月24日,新疆轮台县林业局护林员王香保回忆起自己37年的护林工作时说。

  轮台县地处新疆塔克拉玛干沙漠北缘,塔里木河中下游。域内的40余万亩天然胡杨林,被称为世界上面积最大、分布最密、存活最好的“第三纪活化石”。

  1982年,王香保成为轮台县胡杨林保护区的一名护林员。当时该县只有6个胡杨林管护站,他曾一人在解放渠管护站坚守了18年。常年穿林涉水,对当地的胡杨林了如指掌,他被当地人称为胡杨林里的“活地图”。

  近年来,新疆不断加大对塔里木河流域生态环境的修复和治理,轮台县逐渐成立了19个胡杨林管护站,护林员增加到230名。王香保也在2000年调到县林业局,负责护林员的管理,继续从事胡杨林管护工作。护林员的巡护交通工具从以前的小毛驴、自行车统一换成了摩托车、面包车。

  为解决胡杨林退化问题,轮台县自2017年开始对胡杨林开展拯救行动,引洪灌溉。仅2019年轮台县就修建疏通渠道13条,新建和清淤引洪渠50多公里,修建9处拦水坝,总灌溉面积达30万亩。

  在轮台县老草湖有一片胡杨林,因地处荒漠边缘,常年缺水,部分树木开始干枯。去年经过王香保等人的努力,一条十来公里的引水渠修通了。不仅解救了当地胡杨林,也缓解了农牧民的用水需求。“从我出生的时候这个地方就缺水,现在终于把水引来了。”老草湖一位八十多岁的牧民曾对王香保说。

  如今,走进轮台县塔里木胡杨林公园,一片翠绿。眼下正是胡杨种子成熟时节,带着白色绒毛的种子随风飘落,遇水便能生根发芽。多年的精心养护,轮台县胡杨林已成为塔里木盆地的“绿肺”,在《中国国家地理》杂志组织的评选活动中被评选为中国最美十大森林之一。“明年我就退休了,这一辈子都献给了胡杨林,现在看着林子长得越来越好,值得了。”王香保说。

  塔里木河是中国最长的内陆河,干流全长1300多公里,沿河流域分布的1500万亩胡杨林,对维护沿河流域生态系统有重要作用。2016年,新疆启动了塔里木河流域胡杨林专项保护行动,已连续5年向全流域重点胡杨林区生态输水。今年以来,塔里木河上中游沿岸已有31座生态闸相继开启,沿线阿拉尔、沙雅、库车、轮台、库尔勒、尉犁等地的胡杨林保护区和重点公益林区得以灌溉。

  据中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所监测,2016年至2019年,塔里木河流域天然植被退化趋势得到有效遏制,地下水位明显抬升。上游、中游、下游物种多样性指数较生态输水前分别增加了74.2%、314.9%、99.1%。(完)

【编辑:刘湃】

文章标题: 新疆持续改善塔里木河流域生态环境 续写“胡杨礼赞”

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